Rosja nie ma jednej twarzy. Rosję symbolizuje dwugłowy ptak, który niegdyś był symbolem Konstantynopola. To kraj Gogola, Sałtykowa Szczedrina, Tołstoja, ale także kraj Trockiego, Stalina i Putina. Rosja wspaniałej literatury, muzyki i malarstwa, wspaniałych ludzi, to zarazem wielki obóz bezprawia, więzienie narodów: Tatarów, Ormian, Baszkirów, Czuwaszów, Mordwinów, Czeczenów, Inguszy, Karelów, Buriatów, Ewenków i wielu innych.

Sąsiedzi Rosji carskiej, także Rosji sowieckiej, a dzisiaj Rosji Putina, żyli i wciąż żyją w cieniu dwugłowego ptaka. To pierwotnie herb Paleologów z okresu Cesarstwa Wschodniego Rzymu. Przyjęty w 1472 roku przez Iwana III. W czasach rosyjskich podbojów, zwanych opieką, zmieniało się upierzenie dwugłowego ptaka, a Rosja zmieniała się z księstwa w imperium.

W latach 1550-1700 rokrocznie Rosja powiększała się o obszar równy dzisiejszej Holandii – twierdzi Richard Pipes, syn legionisty Józefa Piłsudskiego, autor książek o Rosji carów i bolszewików. Zmieniali się moskiewscy władcy, a Rosja niezmiennie szła na południe, na wschód i na zachód.

„W ciągu czterystu lat carska Rosja powiększała się o pięćdziesiąt mil kwadratowych dziennie!” – pisze Taras Hunczak, urodzony w międzywojennej Polsce Ukrainiec, profesor Uniwersytetu Rutgersa, autor książki „Imperialna Rosja od Iwana Groźnego do rewolucji”. W roku 1918 dwugłowy ptak Rosji został zastąpiony herbem bolszewickim. Stare godło, przedstawiające ptaka, powróciło na Kreml w 1993 roku.

Fundamenty rosyjskiej polityki

Terytorium większe od Imperium Rosji kontrolowała przez krótki czas Wielka Brytania. Ale to Rosja była i jest bezkonkurencyjna, gdy idzie o ciągłość i trwałość kontroli nad zdobytym terytorium. Imperializm rosyjski, choć poraniony rozpadem sowieckiego władztwa, jest wciąż żywy, a Rosja wciąż nienasycona zdobyczami terytorialnymi. Jest w dzisiejszej Rosji coś z mongolskiego Dżyngis – chana, założyciela Imperium Mongołów.

Pojęcie imperium jest w dzisiejszej Rosji modne i na czasie. W tatarskim Kazaniu ukazuje się od 2000 roku kwartalnik „Ab imperio” (w Internecie: www.empires.ru). Pismo, wedle pomysłu Alli Zeida i Siergieja Glebowa, zamieszcza i upowszechnia artykuły o imperium, definiowanym jako struktura polityczna, gospodarcza i społeczna, która „potrafi sprostać dzisiejszym wyzwaniom, jakim państwo narodowe nie jest w stanie podołać”.

Autorami kwartalnika są naukowcy i dziennikarze rosyjscy i zagraniczni: Ilya Gerasimow, Aleksander Kaplunowsky, Marina Mogilner, Aleksander Semenov, Jarosław Hrytsak i wielu innych. Ostatni projekt zespołu „Ab Imperio”, to „Nowa Historia Carska”. Projekt realizowany jest przez Center of Nationalism and Empire Studies przy szerokim zaangażowaniu mediów elektronicznych i drukowanych w Rosji.

Rosyjskie media produkują i rozprzestrzeniają narracje ideologiczne, w których dominują imperialne oceny i wartości. To widzieliśmy w ostatniej wypowiedzi prezydenta Władimira Putina o Polsce. Wypowiedź ta jest zsynchronizowana z decyzją Yad Vashem i władz Izraela: prezydent Polski nie będzie miał głosu w czasie uroczystości 75. rocznicy wyzwolenia Auschwitz – Birkenau.

Prezydent Duda nie pojedzie zatem 23 stycznia 2020 roku do Izraela. Ale tego właśnie chcą Putin i Netanjahu. „Prezydent Polski, Andrzej Duda, ma zamiar pominąć ważne upamiętnienie Holokaustu w Jerozolimie, dlatego tylko, że nie został poproszony o zabranie głosu” – pisze The Times of Israel.

W czasie uroczystości w Yad Vashem mówić będą: prezydent Putin (spadkobierca zmowy Mołotow – Ribbentrop), prezydent Macron (spadkobierca kolaboranckiej Francji Vichy), książę Karol, prezydent Steinmeier (spadkobierca III Rzeszy), przedstawiciel prezydenta Trampa (spadkobiercy Teheranu i Jałty).

Narracje polityczne, osadzone w głośnych wydarzeniach i wsparte przez doskonale przygotowanych, profesjonalnych dziennikarzy i dyplomatów, tworzą fundament rosyjskiej polityki historycznej i bieżącej polityki informacyjnej. Można w Warszawie tupać ze złości i z żałości, można przygryzać sobie palce, a nawet płakać. Nic to nie da. Lepiej tworzyć własne narracje, mieć dobrą politykę informacyjną i sprawnych dyplomatów, którzy nie będą siedzieć jak kołki za murami ambasad.

Znikają fakty, zostają interpretacje

Rosyjskie narracje są szczególnego rodzaju opowieściami. Należą do instrumentów polityki. Używane są do kształtowania rosyjskiej tożsamości i świadomości narodu. Zarazem narracje oddziałują na międzynarodową opinię publiczną. Stąd konieczność tworzenia w Rosji dwu równoległych narracji – wewnętrznej, na użytek społeczeństwa rosyjskiego, i zewnętrznej, na użytek narodów Europy i świata.

Narracje podnoszą skuteczność i efektywność polityki zagranicznej. Państwo, zdolne docierać ze swoim przekazem do społeczeństw innych państw, ostatecznie zwycięża w zmaganiach o wizję i kształt porządku międzynarodowego. A co dociera już nie do zagranicy, ale choćby do Polaków w kraju? W programie informacyjnym TVP dociera Zenek, nasz towar eksportowy.

W powszechnym odczuciu o potędze państwa decyduje dziś silna gospodarka, handel i dostęp do surowców energetycznych. Coraz częściej jednak do zasobów państwa zalicza się kulturę, atrakcyjność państwa, zdolność przyciągania i wywierania wpływu na otoczenie. Rosja doskonale wykorzystuje swoje możliwości kulturowe, socjotechniczne i informacyjne. Te czynniki pozwalają Rosji silnie oddziaływać na stosunki międzynarodowe.

Pozycja Rosji sprawia, że prezydent Władimir Putin odwiedza Syrię, rozmawia z prezydentem Baszszarem al-Asadem, swoim przyjacielem i wrogiem Netanjahu, następnie jedzie do Izraela, gdzie będzie gościem honorowym w Yad Vashem i będzie serdecznie rozmawiać z premierem Binjaminem Netanjahu.

Premier Netanjahu zapewne wie, że gość honorowy, prezydent Putin, odwołujący się do dziedzictwa historycznego dwugłowego ptaka, herbu dawnej i dzisiejszej Rosji, jest też spadkobiercą ukrywanego ludobójstwa.

Carska Rosja zamordowała setki tysięcy Polaków. W czasach wojny domowej Rosja zamordowała 15 milionów Rosjan, Polaków, Ukraińców, Litwinów i innych. W leninowskich i stalinowskich obozach zginęły 23 miliony oficerów, szlachty, inteligencji, uczonych, bogatych chłopów. W czasach industrializacji Rosji, ginęły setki tysięcy budowniczych. W czasie drugiej wojny światowej, wywołanej przez Stalina i Hitlera, poległo 30 milionów żołnierzy i cywilów. W latach 1939- 57 sowiecka Rosja zamordowała, zamęczyła na Syberii i w więzieniach miliony Polaków.

Rosja nie bierze odpowiedzialności za swoje zbrodnie, za rozpętanie drugiej wojny światowej. Rosja dobrze wie, że w świecie globalnej telewizji, Internetu i satelitów znikają fakty, zostają tylko interpretacje i narracje. Znikają też fronty i wojny frontalne, zastępowane przez doskonale opracowane działania cybernetyczne i propagandowe. Mówił o tym 2 marca 2019 roku na specjalnej konferencji w Moskwie gen. Walerij Gierasimow, szef Sztabu Generalnego FR, zwolennik i zarządca wojen hybrydowych na Bliskim Wschodzie.

Połączenie działań informacyjnych, politycznych i dyplomatycznych, wspartych ostatecznie przez niewielkie siły wojskowe, to wojna nowej generacji” – powiedział Gierasimow. Broń nuklearna i konwencjonalna potęga to tylko parasol, tylko cień dwugłowego ptaka, pod którym Rosja wojuje za pomocą kreowanego obrazu swego państwa, za pomocą tworzenia i upowszechniania wielkich narracji i za pomocą wojen hybrydowych.

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